Arrests and Prosecutions of Pregnant Women, 1973-2020

In 2013, the Journal of Public Health Law and Policy published National Advocates for Pregnant Women (“NAPW”) peer-reviewed study documenting arrests, detentions, and equivalent deprivations of physical liberty of women between 1973 and 2005 in which being pregnant was a necessary element of the crime or a “but for” reason for the coercive or punitive action taken. The study documented 413 such cases.

NAPW has further documented approximately 1,254 such cases from 2006-2020. While the case records reside in NAPW’s files, the sources in the document attached, taken together, document nearly all of the 1,254 criminal cases independently identified or verified by NAPW.